How To Use A Resistor (Applications Of Resistor)
Some of the most common applications for a resistor are listed here.
Use A Resistor In Series With LED
To protect an LED from damage caused by excessive current, a series resistor is chosen to allow a current that does not exceed the manufacturer’s specification. In the case of a single throughhole LED (often referred to as an indicator), the forward current is often limited to around 20mA, and the value of the resistor will depend on the voltage being used.
When using high-output LEDs (which may contain multiple elements in a single 5mm or 10mm package), or LED arrays that are now being used for domestic lighting, the acceptable current may be much greater, and the LED unit may contain its own current-limiting electronics. A datasheet should be consulted for details.
Use A Resistor For Current Limiting With A Transistor
In the following figure, a transistor is switching or amplifying current flowing from B to C. A resistor is used to protect the base of the transistor from excessive current flowing from point A. Resistors are also commonly used to prevent excessive current from flowing between B and C.
Pullup and Pulldown Resistors
When a mechanical switch or pushbutton is attached to the input of a logic chip or microcontroller, a pullup or pulldown resistor is used, applying positive voltage or grounding the pin, respectively, to prevent it from “floating” in an indeterminate state when the switch is open. In the following figure, the upper schematic shows a pulldown resistor, whereas the lower schematic shows a pullup resistor.
A common value for either of them is 10K. When the pushbutton is pressed, its direct connection to positive voltage or to ground easily overwhelms the effect of the resistor. The choice of pullup or pulldown resistor may depend on the type of chip being used.
Resistor Used For Audio Tone Control
A resistor-capacitor combination can limit the high-frequency in a simple audio tone-control circuit, as shown in the following figure.
Beneath a signal travelling from A to B, a resistor is placed in series with a capacitor that passes high frequencies to ground. This is known as a low-pass filter.
Resistor Use In RC Network
A resistor will adjust the charge/discharge time when placed in series with a capacitor, as in the following figure.
When the switch closes, the resistor limits the rate at which the capacitor will charge itself from the power supply. Because a capacitor has an ideally infinite resistance to DC current, the voltage measured at point A will rise until it is close to the supply voltage.
Resistor Used For Voltage Divider
Two resistors may be used to create a voltage divider (see inthe following figure).
If Vin is the supply voltage, the output voltage, Vout, measured at point A, is found by the formula:
Vout = Vin * (R2 / (R1 + R2))
In reality, the actual value of Vout is likely to be affected by how heavily the output is loaded.
If the output node has a high impedance, such as the input to a logic chip or comparator, it will be more susceptible to electrical noise, and lower-value resistors may be needed in the voltage divider to maintain a higher current flow and maintain stability in the attached device.
Resistors in Series
If resistors in series have values R1, R2, R3 . . . the total resistance, R, is found by summing the individual resistances:
R = R1 + R2 + R3. . .
The current through each of the resistors will be the same, whereas the voltage across each of them will vary proportionately with its resistance. If the supply voltage across the series of resistors is VS, and the total of all the resistor values is RT, and the resistance of one resistor is R1, the voltage across that resistor, V1, will be given by the formula:
V1 = VS * (R1 / RT)
Resistors in Parallel
Where two or more resistors (R1, R2, R3 . . . ) are wired in parallel, their total resistance, R, is found from the formula:
1/R = ( 1/R1 ) + ( 1/R2 ) + ( 1/R3 ). . .
Suppose that R1, R2, R3 . . . all have the same individual resistance, represented by RI, and the number of resistors is N. Their total resistance, RT, when wired in parallel, will be:
RT = RI / N
If each resistor has an equal resistance and also has an equal individual rating in watts (represented by WI), the total wattage (WT) that they can handle when wired in parallel to share the power will be:
WT = WI * N
Therefore, if an application requires highwattage resistors, multiple lower-wattage, higher-value resistors may be substituted if they are wired in parallel—and may even be cheaper than a single high-wattage wire-wound resistor.
For example, if a 5W, 50Ω resistor is specified, 10 resistors can be substituted, each rated at 0.5W and 500Ω. Bear in mind that if they are tightly bundled, this will interfere with heat dissipation of resistor.